CE Special Issue - COVID-19
Challenges of Contemporary Economics


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Volume 14 (2020) Volume 13 (2019) Volume 12 (2018) Volume 11 (2017) Volume 10 (2016) Volume 9 (2015) Volume 8 (2014) Volume 7 (2013) Volume 6 (2012) Volume 5 (2011) Volume 4 (2010) Volume 3 (2009) Volume 2 (2008) Volume 1 (2007)

Volume 2 Issue 2 (2008)

Macroeconomic Reasons of Debts in Polish Health Service original article

pp. 5-17 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Kamila Szymańska


The article deals with the problem of debts in polish health service. Authoranalyzes the macroeconomic reasons of this situation. As a main reasons are indicated:a specificity of the health service market, which leads to a inefficient allocationof health services, lack of reliable data on health care system, too low levelof public expenditure on a health care, inappropriate allocation of public capitaland a monopolistic position of the payer.

Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Sweden original article

pp. 19-35 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Jarosław Poteraj


The author's goal was to present both past and present solutions employed bythe Swedishís pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in internationalcomparisons. Author analysis Swedish pension system evolution and presentsstrengths and weaknesses of present Swedish pension system.

The Conditions of Creation and Prospects of Weather Derivatives Development on the Domestic Market original article

pp. 37-57 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Piotr Binkowski


Analysing the possibility of creations and prospects of weather derivativesdevelopment on the domestic market the first of all should be identify the businessareas that are strongly exposed for weather risk, which are: energy, agricultural,building and transportation.The specificity of the Polish climate is the high volatility of the major weatherfactors like temperature or precipitations. Similar to other European countries where weather derivatives markets already exist (e.g.: Germany, France, andUnited Kingdom). Having in mind dynamic grow of companies with regards tomanagement processes, used technologies and marketing strategies, the exposurefor weather risk is getting higher. Therefore, there is a strong pressure for creationof mechanisms and instruments that will allow reducing that kind of risks.Currently in Poland there are no conditions for development of weather derivativesmarket due to lack of demand. That situation is caused by low level ofawareness regarding to possibilities of reducing weather risks. Within a few yearsthe demand for such the instruments will appear ñ together with growing awareness.Once the demand for weather derivative will appear, the existing infrastructureof financial sector is ready for its implementation. Of course it is hard to saywhat will be the direction of whether derivatives grow on the domestic financialmarket but taking into consideration its dynamic grow and strong correlationswith global markets, there is a small probability that weather derivatives will notappear on the Polish market ñ it is only the matter of time.

Intellectual Capital and the Organisational Learning in the Knowledge Society original article

pp. 59-66 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Viorel Lefter, Constantin Bob, Andrea Saseanu


Organisational learning theory appears to be practical when researchers canfind links between two or more variables that can be justifield and implementedthe term intellectual capitalî have appreciated over time into something of machgreater value. The paper argues that work based learning has the potential to contributeto the intellectual capital not only of employer partners but also to the university.

Conceptions of Measurement of Intellectual Capital Value and Their Influence on Establishing Process the Pays of Workers original article

pp. 67-86 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Piotr Lachowicz


The article presents the present relating the human capital opinions and theintellectual capital as well as possibility of use one with methods their measurementto settlement of height of rewards workers.

Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment original article

pp. 87-99 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Adriana Grigorescu


The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transitiontoward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st,2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction.Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at thismoment in the Romanian society there are two systems ñ business and publicadministration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the sametime, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be thelink between them. The link between these systems should make the relation usefulto create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these twoenvironments.The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion aboutthe other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the linkimprovement. A small survey of the membersí opinions, in both systems, will bethe base of the analysis.The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: businesssystem (BSy) and public administration system (PASy). We will present thestructure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc.The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing astools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics.The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledgeis higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking themarketing attitude about public services.

Marketing Promotion and Distribution of Project within Private and Public Sphere original article

pp. 101-111 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Rastislav Kerul


The topic of marketing implementation within project management is out ofinterest of many authors. There are a few literature sources related to the theme.Our science interest is to analyze and outline the main possibilities of marketingconception implementation within project realization in order to make their distributionand promotion effective to reach the target groups and publics. We tryto describe main basis of marketing perspective in managing projects in relationto target groups, to which the project would be defined and it would reach itdirectly or indirectly. The main aim of the study is to analyze the possibilities ofproject preparation and implementation with the support of direct and effectivemarketing mix with emphasis on promotion and distribution policy. The projectwould be seen as a product within this marketing mix and the price is not consideredto be that interesting as it is given by the national law and concrete prioritycall. The communication policy as well as distribution strategy must bedesigned in relation to expectations and needs of target groups which might varyin their age, sex, life standard, demography characteristics, etc.

Possibilities of Prisons Functioning in Support of Public Private Partnership Model original article

pp. 113-124 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Marek Krzysztof Zając, Alina Zając


From the end of the third quarter of year 2000 the number of penal individualscrosses the number of places provided for them. Therefore building of manyconvict prisons is necessary. The problem is if the private enterprises should orcan participate in. Publication portrays in small degree the current situation ofprison management, the idea of PPP as well as advantages and disadvantages ofbuilding prisons in support of Public Private Partnership model.

The Shrinkage in the Fast-Moving Consumer Goods Sector Caused by Shoplifters as a Tool of Financial Results Improvement original article

pp. 125-141 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Janusz Liber


The aim of this article is to characterize the problem of the shrinkage in thefast-moving consumer goods sector caused by shoplifters. The purpose of thisstudy is to determine if offenders factor characteristics of retail layout into theirdecision. This information will allow retailers to focus on things that influenceshoplifter perceptions and behavior in order to optimize their retail operationalstrategy. This article shows the way of fighting against stock losses withoutmoney engagement.


ERP Systems – Peergroup Analysis Framework original article

pp. 143-150 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Andrzej Partyka


This paper presents a specification and peergroup analysis framework for selectionof contemporary ERP systems. It contributes practical solution to the problemof ERP package selection. Presented framework is based on three main selectionsteps: identification of business sector dedicated ERP vendor package, functionaland technology fits analysis, with strong consideration of innovation and securityissues. It also presents an insight into the future years of ERP developments.


Sociosynergistic Management of the Companies. Economic, Energetic and Ecologic Challenge original article

pp. 151-163 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Dušan Turan


Sociosynergistic management is inevitable condition of nanotechnology tendencyof value-creating process of the companies in incoming third level of socialdivision of labor. This management is being a product of transdisciplinary nanocognitionand nano-projection of the systems there through creates for the managementthe operation base for system solution of economic effectiveness, energeticfriendliness and ecologic safety of material-technological processes of the companies.He uncovers the sociosynergetics as a system entirety in the limits of abstractthinking, notion-categorical communication and knowingly-practical acting ofthe subject.


The Evolution of the Personnel Function in Capital Group (Case of Zywiec Group) original article

pp. 165-181 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Anna Borkowska, Henryk Król


This article constitutes a detailed case study on the evolution on the personnelfunction in Zywiec Group that followed from the restructuring of the memberbreweries of the capital group. It covers the process of integration of the Groupand changes to the human resources management system. It also contains theoreticalreflections upon the role of HR specialists in the process of the integrationof the companies. The organization of the personnel function has been presentedhere against a period spanning 3 years of GØ activity (wider range of HR responsibility,increase in the number of specialists employed in HR, lower age, higherlevel of education).


Bank Organizational Structure Choice Dilemma. Case of PKO BP original article

pp. 183-191 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Adam Szafarczyk


Organizational structures are differing for different banks. They depend onindividual bank economic situation, its technology, strategy and form of competitionstruggle. Usually the biggest EU banks are consists from formally or reallyindependent divisions. The most common divisions are Retail Banking, CorporateBanking, Treasury and Investment, sometimes Insurance. PKO BP, the biggestPolish Bank, ought to change its structure due to implementation new IT system.


New Directions and Trends in the Trade of the XXI Century original article

pp. 193-201 | First published in 11 June 2008 | DOI:

Agnieszka Bitkowska, Marcin W. Staniewski


Nowe trendy i wyzwania w obszarze handlu oraz czynniki i metody wpływające na konkurencyjność przedsiębiorstw były tematyką Międzynardowej Konferencji pt. \"The Conference on Commerce\", zorganizowanej przez Academy of Economic Study w Bukareszcie w dn. 7ñ8 kwiecień 2008 r. Konferencja była związana z obchodami 95-lecia powstania Academy of Economic Study w Bukareszcie1. Konferencja stanowiła okazję do wymiany doświadczeń i wiedzy pracowników naukowych, profesorów, doktorów reprezentujących uczelnie europejskie, a także doktorantów przygotowujących swoje dysertacje. W konferencji brali udział przedstawiciele świata nauki z Francji, Rumunii, Włoch, Litwy, Polski, m.in. z: Wyższej Szkoły Finansów i Zarządzania w Warszawie, Romanian-American University, Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest, University of Craiova, Universitatea \"George Bari˛iu\" din Bra∫ov, University of Studies of Messina, University of Transilvania, \"Ovidius\" University of Constanta, ëDimitrie Cantemirí Christian University, \"Politechnical\" University of Timi∫oara, ,,AL.I.Cuza\" University, Southwest University \"Neofit Rilski\", National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Dunarea de Jos University, University of Strasbourg, Kaunas University of Technology, Spiru Haret University, LUISS \"Guido Carli\" University i wielu innych. Nie zabrakło również przedstawicieli praktyki gospodarczej m.in. z WinSoft Consulting Ltd Seattle, jak również przedstawicieli administracji państwowejz rumuńskiego Ministerstwa Obrony, zajmujących się problemami związanymi z zarządzaniem gospodarką oraz przedsiębiorstwem.